The initial map is made throughout the F

The initial map is made throughout the F

Linkage map construction

2:3 population between G. klotzschianum and G. davidsonii, a total of 728 polymorphic markers were used. The total map length was 1 cM, with an average ). This map was designated as map A. The second map, designated as map B, was derived by genotyping the F2:3 population developed between G. thurberi and G. trilobum, and 849 polymorphic markers were used in the linkage map construction. The map size was 1 cM with an average marker distance of 1.193 cM. In both maps, it was observed that chromosome number two also annotated as D502 had the least map size of cM Gold Coast hookup sites and cM in map A and map B, respectively. Interestingly, in both maps, chromosome D502 had a smaller map size but with the highest percentage of SD (Table 1). Similar results have been observed in other linkage maps in cotton (Yu et al. 2011; Li et al. 2016).

The consensus map was constructed by merging two data sets from the two genetic maps. A total of 1 492 markers were mapped onto the 13 linkage groups encompassing the 13 chromosomes, and only 85 markers remained unlinked. The diploid cotton species has 13 chromosomes, while the tetraploid cotton species has 52 chromosomes (Mendoza et al. 2013; Magwanga et al. 2018a). This work was based on the diploid cotton species of the D genome. The consensus map size was 1 cM with an average marker distance of 1.037 cM. Even though the map size was relatively smaller than map A, the marker interval was low, which improved the precision of the consensus map. From the consensus map, we observed that Chromosome D502 had the highest percentage of SD with 58.6%, followed by Chromosome D507 with 47.9%. Chromosome D501 had the highest number of markers (143), while Chromosome D502 had the least number of markers (58) (Table 1). Most of the markers mapped on the consensus map were found to be contributed by map B rather than map A. A total of 797 markers from map B were mapped on the consensus map accounting for 53.4% while only 695 markers (46.6%) were from map A. The chromosome with the highest number of markers (143)was Chromosome D501 while the chromosome with the least number of markers (58) was Chromosome D502 (Fig. 1).

Opinion genetic linkage chart symbolizing thirteen linkage groups of the fresh new diploid cotton of D genome, arranged regarding chart An effective (G. klotzschianum and you can G. davidsonii) and chart B (G. thurberi and you will Grams. trilobum). Indicators into the eco-friendly font portray chart B while markers when you look at the red font show chart A good. The newest indicators inside black colored portray markers translocated off their chromosomes within this the fresh new charts; this new indicators when you look at the SDR is italicized and you will bold. a-m: represent anyone chromosomes, of chromosome 1 to chromosome 13

Segregation distortion (SD) study

In map A, out of the 728 markers mapped, 159 markers were distorted accounting for 22.2%, and the highest SD was observed in Chromosome D502 with 76.1% followed by Chromosome D507 with 40.7%. The SDRs were located on Chromosome D502, D505, D507, and D508. Chromosome D502 had the largest SDR, while Chromosome D507 had the highest number of SDR.

It was observed that the alleles in SDR were skewed towards a particular parental line, like that in Chromosome D502 towards the female parent (G. klotzschianum), and in Chromosome D507 towards the heterozygosity (Kirungu et al. 2018). In the second genetic map B, there was a slightly lower number of distorted markers, with only 135 accounting for 15.8%, and the highest two segregation distortions were observed in Chromosome D502 and Chromosome D507 with 42.8% and 38.3%, respectively (Table 1). Chromosomes that had the SDRs were D501, D502, D506, D507, D509, D510, and D511. Moreover, the largest SDR was located on Chromosome D502, while Chromosome D507 had the highest number of SDR.

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